moving across a conductor produce heat from friction. Our goal,
using electrolysis of water, is to minimize the heat produced by the electrodes.
It makes no difference if they are plates, tubes, rods, screws, bolts, wire, etc.
They all produce heat when electrical current passes across them. With
that in mind, I am going to explain how to determine the amperage saturation
point of your Cells; the maximum amount of amperage the electrodes can
support "continuously" without causing excess heat.
The late great
Michael Faraday teaches us that each square inch of electrode surface,
can "efficiently" pass 0.54 amps of electrical current. We label that as Current Density;
the amount of amperage an electrode can carry or distribute, without
causing excess heat. It is the maximum amperage that should be used. If we follow that rule, our electrodes
will not deteriorate from electron bombardment (for the most part), and
they will operate continuously without overheating and causing steam.
In theory, Electron flow is around and down the Negative
power wire, and onto the electrical connection of the negative
electrode. From their, electrons take the path of least resistance. They are attracted to the Positive electrical pressure coming from the
positive power source across the water - in our Cell. The pressure
must be great enough to be felt across the water and any obstacles along
the way (other electrodes and the water between them).
Ok, let's back up and look closely at the Negative electrode, and
lets call it a plate. Depending on where the electrons hop onto the
plate, they travel from there, across the surface, around the sides, and
on to the opposite side - where attraction is strongest. And guess where
attraction is strongest. It is strongest inside
the gasket area that touches the water. That area inside of the
gasket is smaller than the entire surface area of that side of the plate.
Thus, the gasket funnels the amperage into using a smaller area. Example: I have a
4x4 inch square plate. I am using a 3.75 inch O-Ring gasket that
is 1/4 inch thick and has an inside diameter of 3.5 inches. The 4x4 inch
plate contains 16 square inches of surface area, on one side. The inside
diameter of the O-Ring has 12.25 square inches. If I use the dimensions
of the plate to calculate Current Density, the plate can efficiently
distribute 8.4 amps. All of that amperage has to pass through the
O-Ring, which by the way can only distribute 6.615 amps efficiently.
Amperage flow is going to be restricted in that smaller area. Electrons
are going to accumulate, pile up, and that is going to cause excessive
So in my opinion, for what it is worth, Current Density calculations
must be based on the dimensions of the inside area of the gasket; the
location where electrons congregate to cross the water. This is
totally disregarded by everyone; yet it is so clear to me. I did not
recognize it until I started building my Cell Configurator. And that is
why my Configurator asks for the size of the Active Surface area of the
plate, not the size of the plate. It wants to calculate the current
density of the inside area of the gaskets; because that is where Current
Density matters most; that is where it is restricted the most. Electrons
travel across the plate and are then funneled to a smaller surface area
from which they exit the plate and cross the water. From there, the
journey continues from plate to plate, in the same sequence. Electrons
travel from inside the O-Ring, across the water to the inside of the
next O-Ring, around the plate to the opposite side, out that O-Ring and
across the water. They continue this process until they reach the
Positive electrical connection. That is the downfall of a Dry Cell. If
we were using Wet Cells, Current Density would be based on the plate dimensions.
If you are still confused, look at it this way. If I pass amperage
down a 2 inch diameter wire and reduce the size to a 1.5 inch diameter
wire, the 1.5 inch wire will get hot sooner. Will it not?
Now with all I have stated above, "What do you think about companies
that add up the Total Square Inch surface of a plate, Front, Back, and
Sides, then they multiply that times the number of plates and use that
total to calculate how much amperage their Cells can operate on"; there
are a lot of them. "What do you think about companies that use the
Square Inch of one side of a plate and multiply that times the number of
plates to get a total sq. in. to calculate with?" There are a lot of
them. Now "what do you think about companies that use the sq.
of one side of one plate and multiply it by the number of water
compartments to calculate their maximum amperage?" They are
few and far apart. I am providing this information to expose the lack of
technical knowledge most of these Companies Have. They take too
for granted because they mostly copy someone else's work, or they make things sound good.
To my knowledge, Global Ecological Solutions is
the only company accurately calculating Current Density. I
know of at least one company that bases Cell efficiency on MMW
calculations. Well excuse me, but MMW calculations are for a specific
time period - of a specific test. MMW has nothing to do with the Maximum
Amperage a cell should be operated at "Continuously". Do you want a Cell
that runs cool for 30 minutes, or one that runs cool for 30 hours.
Current Density calculations are an important part of the formula. It
should not be overlooked.
There is one more observation I would like to make aware, and that is
the edges of the electrodes plates. Electrons are not good at making
sharp turns. Our Wet Cells are considered inferior to Dry Cells, because
electron flow can leak across the water by flying off of the edges of the plates.
The conductivity of the water makes it possible. I discovered, a long time
ago, that it can be eliminated by rounding off the sharp edges of the
plates. Electrons will then make the turn easier, and cell efficiency increases.
Hope this Helps.