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Water

 

 If you are a skeptic on the Joe cell and people that talk about the cell stop working from negative attitudes or disbelieve go and watch this video. Science is very ignorant and in its so called LAWS it doesn't pick up on this behavior. Because what's really happening has always been outside the laws of science. Are you ready to wake up to the matrix you are under as well as the spell, and find how deep the rabbit hole goes or are we still asleep.

 

The first scientific decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, by electrolysis, was done in 1800 by William Nicholson, an English chemist. In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen (by volume).

After reading some of the information that follows, you will understand why most HHO Experimenters  use Distilled water in their cells.

 

Purified water is water from any source that is physically processed to remove impurities. Distilled water and demonized water have been the most common forms of purified water, but water can also be purified by other processes including reverse osmosis, carbon filtration, micro porous filtration, ultra filtration, ultraviolet oxidation, or electro dialysis. In recent decades, a combination of the above processes have come into use to produce water of such high purity that its trace contaminants are measured in parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt). Purified water has many uses, largely in science and engineering laboratories and industries, and is produced in a range of purities.

Methods of water purifying:

Distillation

Distilled water has virtually all of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving nearly all of the solid contaminants behind. Distillation produces very pure water but also leaves behind a leftover white or yellowish mineral scale on the distillation apparatus, which requires that the apparatus be frequently cleaned.

For many applications, cheaper alternatives such as deionized water are used in place of distilled water.

Double-distillation

Double-distilled water (abbreviated "ddH2O" or "Bidets. water") is prepared by double distillation of water. Historically, it was the de facto standard for highly purified laboratory water for biochemistry and trace analysis until combination methods of purification became widespread.

Deionization

Deionized water which is also known as demineralized water (DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water, see spelling differences) is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electro deionization.

It should be noted that deionization does not remove the hydroxide or hydronium ions from water; as water self-ionizes to equilibrium, this would lead to the removal of the water itself.

Other processes

Other processes are also used to purify water, including reverse osmosis, carbon filtration, micro porous filtration, ultra filtration, ultraviolet oxidation, or electro dialysis. These are used in place of, or in addition to the processes listed above. Generally, each process is well suited to removing a particular set of impurities while not being as good at removing other impurities.

 

Parameters of purified water:

Resistivity and conductivity

Removal of ions causes water's resistivity to increase, providing a convenient measurement for the exact extent of deionization. Ultra pure deionized water has a theoretical maximum resistivity of 1.831 GΩm (18.31 MΩcm) and a theoretical minimum conductivity of 5.45 μS/m (0.0545 μs/cm), compared to around 1.5 MΩm (15 kΩcm) and 7 mS/m (70 μS/cm) for tap water. Ultrapure water's high resistivity allows it to be used both as a coolant and a cleaning/washing substance in direct contact with high-voltage electrical equipment.

pH values

The theoretical pH of highly purified water is 7.0. In practice, however, most purified water will have a pH that is slightly acidic (less than 7.0) due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Dissolved carbon dioxide reacts slowly with water to give the bicarbonate and hydronium ions.

CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) → HCO3- + H3O+


Note that carbonic acid, H2CO3, is only formed in strongly acid solutions. Distillation temporarily removes dissolved CO2 from the water. However, during condensation, water that is exposed to air will reabsorb CO2 again resulting in a pH that is slightly less than 7.0.

Non-laboratory uses

Distilled or deionized water are commonly used to top up lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks. The presence of foreign ions commonly found in tap water will cause a drastic reduction in an automobile's battery lifespan.

Distilled or deionized water is preferable to tap water for use in automotive cooling systems. The minerals and ions typically found in tap water can be corrosive to internal engine components, and can cause a more rapid depletion of the anti-corrosion additives found in most antifreeze formulations. Distilled or deionized water is especially important in automotive hybrid system component cooling systems, mixed with hybrid system coolant, to prevent corrosion and/or electrolysis of hybrid components.

Using distilled water in steam irons for pressing clothes, as well as other appliances such as humidifiers and cigar humidors which boil water, can reduce mineral scale build-up and help the appliance last longer. However, many iron manufacturers say that distilled water is no longer necessary in their irons.

For treatment of sleep apnea, patients using CPAP machines that have a humidifier are instructed to use distilled water so he or she does not inhale any impurities from non-purified water.

Purified water is used in freshwater and marine aquariums. Since it does not contain impurities such as copper and chlorine, it keeps fish free from diseases, as well as avoiding the build-up of algae on aquarium plants, due to its lack of phosphate and silicate. Deionized water should be re-mineralized before used in aquaria, since it also lacks many macro and micro-nutrients needed by both plants and fish.

Another application is to cool off airplane engines before takeoff, was used on the early Boeing 707. This is not as common today due to cost.

Deionized water is very often used as an "ingredient" in many cosmetics and pharmaceuticals where it is sometimes referred to as "aqua" on product ingredient labels; see International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients. This use again owes to its lack of potential for causing undesired chemical reactions due to impurities.

Because of its high relative dielectric constant (~80), deionized water is also used (for short durations) as a high voltage dielectric in many pulsed power applications, such as Sandia's Z Machine.

Purified water can also be used in PC water-cooling systems. The lack of impurity in the water means that the system stays clean and prevents a build up of bacteria and algae. Also, the low conductance leads to less risk of electrical damage in the event of a leak or spillage. This enables the machine to work at optimal efficiency even after extensive periods of time without water exchange.

A recent use of purified water is that of a final rinse in some car washes where, because it contains no dissolved solutes, the car dries without leaving any spots. Another use of deionized water is in window cleaning, where window cleaners use pumped systems to brush and rinse windows with deionized water again without leaving any spots.

Deionized water has also recently found a use in an up to date version of water fog fire extinguishing systems. Such systems can be used in sensitive environments such as where high voltage electrical and sensitive electronic equipment is used. The 'sprinkler' nozzles use much finer spray jets and operate at up 35 MPa (350 bar; 5000 psi) of pressure. The extremely fine mist produced takes the heat out of a fire rapidly and the deionized water coupled with the fine droplets is non conducting and does not damage sensitive equipment, not already damaged by fire. The system is perfectly safe to discharge when personnel are present. Apart from getting a little damp, there are no other hazards associated with the system.

Drinking purified water

Many beverage manufacturers use distilled water to ensure a drink's purity and taste. Bottled distilled water is sold as well, and can usually be found in supermarkets. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment.

Water filtration devices are becoming increasingly common in households. Most of these devices do not distill water, though there continues to be an increase in consumer-oriented water distillers and reverse osmosis machines being sold and used. Municipal water supplies often add or have trace impurities at levels which are regulated to be safe for consumption. Much of these additional impurities, such as volatile organic compounds, fluoride, and an estimated 75,000+ other chemical compounds are not removed through conventional filtration; however, distillation and reverse osmosis eliminate nearly all of these impurities.

The drinking of purified water has been both advocated and discouraged for health reasons. Purified water lacks minerals and ions, such as calcium, which are normally found in potable (drinking) water, and which have important biological functions such as in nervous system homeostasis. Some percentage of our daily consumption of these minerals and ions come from our drinking water, but most of them come from the food we eat, making DI water perfectly fine to drink if one has food in his or her system. The lack of naturally-occurring minerals in distilled water has raised some concerns. The Journal of General Internal Medicine published a study on the mineral contents of different waters available in the US. The study concluded, "drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Calcium, Magnesium, and Sodium and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals," and further encouraged individuals to "check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs." Since distilled water is devoid of minerals, supplemental mineral intake through diet is needed to maintain proper health.

It is often observed that consumption of "hard" water, or water that has some minerals, is associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects. As noted in the American Journal of Epidemiology, consumption of hard drinking water is negatively correlated with atherosclerotic heart disease. Since distilled water is free of minerals, it will not have these potential benefits.

It has been suggested that because distilled water lacks fluoride ions that are added by a minority of governments (e.g., municipalities in the United States) at water treatment plants using sodium hex fluorosilicate or hexafluorosilicic acid for their effect on the inhibition of cavity formation: the drinking of distilled water may increase the risk of tooth decay.

The costs associated with water distillation have generally been prohibitive. However, distilling water with solar water distillers is becoming increasingly popular around the world; they can be relatively simple to design and build.

Electrical properties

Pure water containing no ions is an excellent insulator, but not even "deionized" water is completely free of ions. Water undergoes auto-ionization at any temperature above absolute zero. Further, because water is such a good solvent, it almost always has some solute dissolved in it, most frequently a salt. If water has even a tiny amount of such an impurity, then it can conduct electricity readily, as impurities such as salt separate into free ions in aqueous solution by which an electric current can flow.

Water can be split into its constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, by passing an electric current through it. This process is called electrolysis. Water molecules naturally dissociate into H+ and OH ions, which are pulled toward the cathode and anode, respectively. At the cathode, two H+ ions pick up electrons and form H2 gas. At the anode, four OH ions combine and release O2 gas, molecular water, and four electrons. The gases produced, bubble to the surface, where they can be collected. It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 182 kΩm/m (or 18.2 MΩcm/cm) at 25 C. This figure agrees well with what is typically seen on reverse osmosis, ultra filtered and deionized ultra pure water systems used, for instance, in semiconductor manufacturing plants. A salt or acid contaminant level exceeding even 100 parts per trillion (ppt) in ultra pure water begins to noticeably lower its resistivity level by up to several kilohm-square meters per meter (a change of several hundred nanosiemens per meter of conductance).

 

Electrical conductivity

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increases significantly upon solvation of a small amount of ionic material water such as hydrogen chloride. Thus the risks of electrocution are much greater in water with the usual impurities not found in pure water. (It is worth noting, however, that the risks of electrocution decrease when the impurities increase to the point where the water itself is a better conductor than the human body. For example, the risks of electrocution in sea water are lower than in fresh water, as the sea has a much higher level of impurities, particularly common salt, and the main current path will seek the better conductor. This is, nonetheless, not foolproof and substantial risks remain in salt water.) Any electrical properties observable in water are from the ions of mineral salts and carbon dioxide dissolved in it. Water does self-ionize where two water molecules become one hydroxide anion and one hydronium cation, but not enough to carry enough electric current to do any work or harm for most operations. In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.055 S/cm at 25 C. Water can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence of dissolved ions this is a very slow process, as very little current is conducted. While electrons are the primary charge carriers in water (and metals), in ice (and some other electrolytes), protons are the primary carriers (see proton conductor).

Dipolar nature of water

model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water
 

model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water

An important feature of water is its polar nature. The water molecule forms an angle, with hydrogen atoms at the tips and oxygen at the vertex. Since oxygen has a higher electro negativity than hydrogen, the side of the molecule with the oxygen atom has a partial negative charge. A molecule with such a charge difference is called a dipole. The charge differences cause water molecules to be attracted to each other (the relatively positive areas being attracted to the relatively negative areas) and to other polar molecules. This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding, and explains many of the properties of water. Certain molecules, such as carbon dioxide, also have a difference in electro negativity between the atoms but the difference is that the shape of carbon dioxide is symmetrically aligned and so the opposing charges cancel one another out. This phenomenon of water can be seen if you hold an electrical source near a thin stream of water falling vertically, causing the stream to bend towards the electrical source.

Although hydrogen bonding is a relatively weak attraction compared to the covalent bonds within the water molecule itself, it is responsible for a number of water's physical properties. One such property is its relatively high melting and boiling point temperatures; more heat energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds between molecules. The similar compound hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has much weaker hydrogen bonding, is a gas at room temperature even though it has twice the molecular mass of water. The extra bonding between water molecules also gives liquid water a large specific heat capacity. This high heat capacity makes water a good heat storage medium.

Hydrogen bonding also gives water its unusual behavior when freezing. When cooled to near freezing point, the presence of hydrogen bonds means that the molecules, as they rearrange to minimize their energy, form the hexagonal crystal structure of ice that is actually of lower density: hence the solid form, ice, will float in water. In other words, water expands as it freezes, whereas almost all other materials shrink on solidification.

An interesting consequence of the solid having a lower density than the liquid is that ice will melt if sufficient pressure is applied. With increasing pressure the melting point temperature drops and when the melting point temperature is lower than the ambient temperature the ice begins to melt. A significant increase of pressure is required to lower the melting point temperature the pressure exerted by an ice skater on the ice would only reduce the melting point by approximately 0.09 C (0.16 F).

Electronegative Polarity

Water has a partial negative charge (σ-) near the oxygen atom due to the unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges (σ+) near the hydrogen atoms. In water, this happens because the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms that is, it has a stronger "pulling power" on the molecule's electrons, drawing them closer (along with their negative charge) and making the area around the oxygen atom more negative than the area around both of the hydrogen atoms.

 

 
 
   

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