If you are a skeptic on the Joe cell and people that talk
about the cell stop working from negative attitudes or disbelieve go and
watch this video. Science is very ignorant and in its so called LAWS it
doesn't pick up on this behavior. Because what's really happening has always
been outside the laws of science. Are you ready to wake up to the matrix you
are under as well as the spell, and find how deep the rabbit hole goes or
are we still asleep.
The first scientific decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, by
electrolysis, was done in 1800 by William Nicholson, an English chemist. In
1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water
is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen (by volume).
After reading some of the information that follows, you will understand
why most HHO Experimenters use Distilled water in their cells.
Purified water is water from any
source that is physically processed to remove impurities. Distilled water
and demonized water have been the most common forms of purified
water, but water can also be purified by other processes including reverse
osmosis, carbon filtration, micro porous filtration, ultra filtration,
ultraviolet oxidation, or electro dialysis. In recent decades, a combination
of the above processes have come into use to produce water of such high
purity that its trace contaminants are measured in parts per billion (ppb)
or parts per trillion (ppt). Purified water has many uses, largely in
science and engineering laboratories and industries, and is produced in a
range of purities.
Methods of water purifying:
Distilled water has virtually all of its impurities removed
through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then
condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving nearly all of the solid
contaminants behind. Distillation produces very pure water but also leaves
behind a leftover white or yellowish mineral scale on the distillation
apparatus, which requires that the apparatus be frequently cleaned.
For many applications, cheaper alternatives such as deionized water are
used in place of distilled water.
Double-distilled water (abbreviated "ddH2O" or "Bidets.
water") is prepared by double distillation of water. Historically, it was
the de facto standard for highly purified laboratory water for biochemistry
and trace analysis until combination methods of purification became
Deionized water which is also known as demineralized water
(DI water or de-ionized water; also spelled deionised water,
see spelling differences) is water that has had its mineral ions removed,
such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as
chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses
specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the
mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are
dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally
similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale
buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged
organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the
resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative
bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using
It should be noted that deionization does not remove the hydroxide or
hydronium ions from water; as water self-ionizes to equilibrium, this would
lead to the removal of the water itself.
Other processes are also used to purify water, including reverse osmosis,
carbon filtration, micro porous filtration, ultra filtration, ultraviolet
oxidation, or electro dialysis. These are used in place of, or in addition to
the processes listed above. Generally, each process is well suited to
removing a particular set of impurities while not being as good at removing
Parameters of purified water:
Resistivity and conductivity
Removal of ions causes water's resistivity to increase, providing a
convenient measurement for the exact extent of deionization. Ultra pure
deionized water has a theoretical maximum resistivity of 1.831 GΩ·m (18.31
MΩ·cm) and a theoretical minimum conductivity of 5.45 μS/m (0.0545 μs/cm),
compared to around 1.5 MΩ·m (15 kΩ·cm) and 7 mS/m (70 μS/cm) for tap water.
Ultrapure water's high resistivity allows it to be used both as a coolant
and a cleaning/washing substance in direct contact with high-voltage
The theoretical pH of highly purified water is 7.0. In practice, however,
most purified water will have a pH that is slightly acidic (less than 7.0)
due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) from the
atmosphere. Dissolved carbon dioxide reacts slowly with water to give the
bicarbonate and hydronium ions.
- CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) → HCO3-
Note that carbonic acid, H2CO3, is only formed in
strongly acid solutions. Distillation temporarily removes dissolved CO2
from the water. However, during condensation, water that is exposed to air
will reabsorb CO2 again resulting in a pH that is slightly less
Distilled or deionized water are commonly used to top up lead acid
batteries used in cars and trucks. The presence of foreign ions commonly
found in tap water will cause a drastic reduction in an automobile's battery
Distilled or deionized water is preferable to tap water for use in
automotive cooling systems. The minerals and ions typically found in tap
water can be corrosive to internal engine components, and can cause a more
rapid depletion of the anti-corrosion additives found in most antifreeze
formulations. Distilled or deionized water is especially important in
automotive hybrid system component cooling systems, mixed with hybrid system
coolant, to prevent corrosion and/or electrolysis of hybrid components.
Using distilled water in steam irons for pressing clothes, as well as
other appliances such as humidifiers and cigar humidors which boil water,
can reduce mineral scale build-up and help the appliance last longer.
However, many iron manufacturers say that distilled water is no longer
necessary in their irons.
For treatment of sleep apnea, patients using CPAP machines that have a
humidifier are instructed to use distilled water so he or she does not
inhale any impurities from non-purified water.
Purified water is used in freshwater and marine aquariums. Since it does
not contain impurities such as copper and chlorine, it keeps fish free from
diseases, as well as avoiding the build-up of algae on aquarium plants, due
to its lack of phosphate and silicate. Deionized water should be
re-mineralized before used in aquaria, since it also lacks many macro and
micro-nutrients needed by both plants and fish.
Another application is to cool off airplane engines before takeoff, was
used on the early Boeing 707. This is not as common today due to cost.
Deionized water is very often used as an "ingredient" in many cosmetics
and pharmaceuticals where it is sometimes referred to as "aqua" on product
ingredient labels; see International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.
This use again owes to its lack of potential for causing undesired chemical
reactions due to impurities.
Because of its high relative dielectric constant (~80), deionized water
is also used (for short durations) as a high voltage dielectric in many
pulsed power applications, such as Sandia's Z Machine.
Purified water can also be used in PC water-cooling systems. The lack of
impurity in the water means that the system stays clean and prevents a build
up of bacteria and algae. Also, the low conductance leads to less risk of
electrical damage in the event of a leak or spillage. This enables the
machine to work at optimal efficiency even after extensive periods of time
without water exchange.
A recent use of purified water is that of a final rinse in some car
washes where, because it contains no dissolved solutes, the car dries
without leaving any spots. Another use of deionized water is in window
cleaning, where window cleaners use pumped systems to brush and rinse
windows with deionized water again without leaving any spots.
Deionized water has also recently found a use in an up to date version of
water fog fire extinguishing systems. Such systems can be used in sensitive
environments such as where high voltage electrical and sensitive electronic
equipment is used. The 'sprinkler' nozzles use much finer spray jets and
operate at up 35 MPa (350 bar; 5000 psi) of pressure. The extremely fine
mist produced takes the heat out of a fire rapidly and the deionized water
coupled with the fine droplets is non conducting and does not damage
sensitive equipment, not already damaged by fire. The system is perfectly
safe to discharge when personnel are present. Apart from getting a little
damp, there are no other hazards associated with the system.
Drinking purified water
Many beverage manufacturers use distilled water to ensure a drink's
purity and taste. Bottled distilled water is sold as well, and can usually
be found in supermarkets. Water purification, such as distillation, is
especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not
suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment.
Water filtration devices are becoming increasingly common in households.
Most of these devices do not distill water, though there continues to be an
increase in consumer-oriented water distillers and reverse osmosis machines
being sold and used. Municipal water supplies often add or have trace
impurities at levels which are regulated to be safe for consumption. Much of
these additional impurities, such as volatile organic compounds, fluoride,
and an estimated 75,000+ other chemical compounds are not removed through
conventional filtration; however, distillation and reverse osmosis eliminate
nearly all of these impurities.
The drinking of purified water has been both advocated and discouraged
for health reasons. Purified water lacks minerals and ions, such as calcium,
which are normally found in potable (drinking) water, and which have
important biological functions such as in nervous system homeostasis. Some
percentage of our daily consumption of these minerals and ions come from our
drinking water, but most of them come from the food we eat, making DI water
perfectly fine to drink if one has food in his or her system. The lack of
naturally-occurring minerals in distilled water has raised some concerns.
The Journal of General Internal Medicine published a study on the mineral
contents of different waters available in the US. The study concluded,
"drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels
of Calcium, Magnesium, and Sodium and may provide clinically important
portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals," and further
encouraged individuals to "check the mineral content of their drinking
water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their
needs." Since distilled water is devoid of minerals, supplemental mineral
intake through diet is needed to maintain proper health.
It is often observed that consumption of "hard" water, or water that has
some minerals, is associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects. As
noted in the American Journal of Epidemiology, consumption of hard drinking
water is negatively correlated with atherosclerotic heart disease. Since
distilled water is free of minerals, it will not have these potential
It has been suggested that because distilled water lacks fluoride ions
that are added by a minority of governments (e.g., municipalities in the
United States) at water treatment plants using sodium hex fluorosilicate or
hexafluorosilicic acid for their effect on the inhibition of cavity
formation: the drinking of distilled water may increase the risk of tooth
The costs associated with water distillation have generally been
prohibitive. However, distilling water with solar water distillers is
becoming increasingly popular around the world; they can be relatively
simple to design and build.
Pure water containing no ions is an excellent insulator, but not even "deionized"
water is completely free of ions. Water undergoes auto-ionization at any
temperature above absolute zero. Further, because water is such a good
solvent, it almost always has some solute dissolved in it, most frequently a
salt. If water has even a tiny amount of such an impurity, then it can
conduct electricity readily, as impurities such as salt separate into free
ions in aqueous solution by which an electric current can flow.
Water can be split into its constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, by
passing an electric current through it. This process is called electrolysis.
Water molecules naturally dissociate into H+ and OH−
ions, which are pulled toward the cathode and anode, respectively. At the
cathode, two H+ ions pick up electrons and form H2
gas. At the anode, four OH− ions combine and release O2
gas, molecular water, and four electrons. The gases produced, bubble to the
surface, where they can be collected. It is known that the theoretical
maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 182 kΩ·m²/m (or
18.2 MΩ·cm²/cm) at 25 °C. This figure agrees well with what is typically
seen on reverse osmosis, ultra filtered and deionized ultra pure water systems
used, for instance, in semiconductor manufacturing plants. A salt or acid
contaminant level exceeding even 100 parts per trillion (ppt) in ultra pure
water begins to noticeably lower its resistivity level by up to several
kilohm-square meters per meter (a change of several hundred nanosiemens per
meter of conductance).
Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increases
significantly upon solvation of a small amount of ionic material water such
as hydrogen chloride. Thus the risks of electrocution are much greater in
water with the usual impurities not found in pure water. (It is worth
noting, however, that the risks of electrocution decrease when the
impurities increase to the point where the water itself is a better
conductor than the human body. For example, the risks of electrocution in
sea water are lower than in fresh water, as the sea has a much higher level
of impurities, particularly common salt, and the main current path will seek
the better conductor. This is, nonetheless, not foolproof and substantial
risks remain in salt water.) Any electrical properties observable in water
are from the ions of mineral salts and carbon dioxide dissolved in it. Water
does self-ionize where two water molecules become one hydroxide anion and
one hydronium cation, but not enough to carry enough electric current to do
any work or harm for most operations. In pure water, sensitive equipment can
detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.055 µS/cm at 25 °C. Water
can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence
of dissolved ions this is a very slow process, as very little current is
conducted. While electrons are the primary charge carriers in water (and
metals), in ice (and some other electrolytes), protons are the primary
carriers (see proton conductor).
Dipolar nature of water
model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water
An important feature of water is its polar nature. The water molecule
forms an angle, with hydrogen atoms at the tips and oxygen at the vertex.
Since oxygen has a higher electro negativity than hydrogen, the side of the
molecule with the oxygen atom has a partial negative charge. A molecule with
such a charge difference is called a dipole. The charge differences cause
water molecules to be attracted to each other (the relatively positive areas
being attracted to the relatively negative areas) and to other polar
molecules. This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding, and explains many
of the properties of water. Certain molecules, such as carbon dioxide, also
have a difference in electro negativity between the atoms but the difference
is that the shape of carbon dioxide is symmetrically aligned and so the
opposing charges cancel one another out. This phenomenon of water can be
seen if you hold an electrical source near a thin stream of water falling
vertically, causing the stream to bend towards the electrical source.
Although hydrogen bonding is a relatively weak attraction compared to the
covalent bonds within the water molecule itself, it is responsible for a
number of water's physical properties. One such property is its relatively
high melting and boiling point temperatures; more heat energy is required to
break the hydrogen bonds between molecules. The similar compound hydrogen
sulfide (H2S), which has much weaker hydrogen bonding, is a gas
at room temperature even though it has twice the molecular mass of water.
The extra bonding between water molecules also gives liquid water a large
specific heat capacity. This high heat capacity makes water a good heat
Hydrogen bonding also gives water its unusual behavior when freezing.
When cooled to near freezing point, the presence of hydrogen bonds means
that the molecules, as they rearrange to minimize their energy, form the
hexagonal crystal structure of ice that is actually of lower density: hence
the solid form, ice, will float in water. In other words, water expands as
it freezes, whereas almost all other materials shrink on solidification.
An interesting consequence of the solid having a lower density than the
liquid is that ice will melt if sufficient pressure is applied. With
increasing pressure the melting point temperature drops and when the melting
point temperature is lower than the ambient temperature the ice begins to
melt. A significant increase of pressure is required to lower the melting
point temperature —the pressure exerted by an ice skater on the ice would
only reduce the melting point by approximately 0.09 °C (0.16 °F).
- Electronegative Polarity
Water has a partial negative charge (σ-) near the oxygen atom due to the
unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges (σ+) near the
hydrogen atoms. In water, this happens because the oxygen atom is more
electronegative than the hydrogen atoms — that is, it has a stronger
"pulling power" on the molecule's electrons, drawing them closer (along with
their negative charge) and making the area around the oxygen atom more
negative than the area around both of the hydrogen atoms.