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Spark Plugs

AquaPulser   |  Firestorm   |   PulStar  |   ACIS 

Is that automobile you are driving still peppy?
Are you waiting for that 100K mile tune-up - to replace the spark plugs?

Ignition Spark is what ignites the fuel in a spark-ignition Internal Combustion Engine.

  • Fuel Economy depends on the spark plug, the ignition coil, the plug wires, ignition timing, and many other factors.

This page shows some of the new technology available today; technology that can give your engine:

  • more power
  • more torque
  • better fuel economy
  • reduce harmful exhaust emissions.





  Spark Plug Overview

Robert Krupa's Fire Storm Spark Plugs

What happened to the Firestorm sparkplug developed by Robert Krupa? It produced a plasma spark that allowed the air fuel ratio to be adjusted to 40 to 1; talk about running lean. Sparkplug manufacturers refused to make it for him. They said it would last forever. Imagine that. So Krupa bought his own spark plug company. Where is it now?

Today we know we can mist water over a high voltage arc and produce an explosive flame. The arc destroys the water molecules. Tomorrow, we may run our motors off a special sparkplug that is capable of igniting water mist. The plug was invented by Robert Krupa, about 15 years ago. Could it be that changing your spark plugs, installing a hotter coil, and a set of low resistant plug wires, is all that is needed to convert your motor to run on water vapor?

  Firestorm Spark Plug
  Patent US 6060822

  How to make Plasma Spark Plugs





  Left = Firestorm plug firing   

  Right = Conventional Plug firing










On July 12, 2008, I had a telephone conversation with Robert Krupa. I was so honored; he is the man when it comes to spark plugs. His world has been turned upside down but the Lord has righted it. Listen folks, the Firestorm is going to be in production very soon; possibly only a few weeks away. What did Robert want to talk about? Believe it or not, he wanted to talk about Cells.

Mr. Krupa is not exactly in hiding, but in a way he is- so I will not disclose the location. He said he accepts and responds to email. You can contact him at flamefromwater@gmail.com

The man has an army of Angels.



August 12, 2008, a note from Robert: 

I just got out of a meeting. I will be showing "PLASMA" by 10:30am tomorrow. In 30 days, production will begin. By the end of the year it should be in Full Production.

January 21, 2009:

I had a telephone conversation with Robert, this afternoon. There were serious problems with the manufacture of the New Firestorm (again). Some of the parts did not meet the specifications that were required in the contract. Robert has obtained a new financial backer and a new manufacturing location. He is sending me a 22 minute video of the new Firestorm Plug in action. It demonstrates the Firestorm igniting water vapor. I will post the new video ASAP.

March 24th, 2011

I have not received Robert Krupa's new video of the Firestorm Spark Plug. I have emailed him twice. His last response was "I am working on it as we speak".

Frankly, I am not wasting anymore time on Robert Krupa. I know of people manufacturing his plug, a set at a time. They can be had Robert. So why can you Not manufacture them one set at a time?

You can email Robert at: Flamefromwater@gmail.com



Plasma Pulse

            AQUAPULSER - Plasma Ignition System

"Robert Krupa, here is the Ignition System you wanted for your Firestorm spark plug"

The AquaPulser is a low power, high energy Pulsed Direct Current Ignition Module. Could it be a Radiant Plasma Generator? It wires up between your existing spark plug wires and your spark plug. The system consists of an Ignition Module and one or more Distribution Blocks. The Module generates high current DC that is sent to the spark plug - at the same time the spark plug fires. In other words, at the time your on board spark system sends voltage to the spark plug, the AquaPulser adds the high DC current - at the same instance. That means you have both your normal high Voltage output from your coil - plus the high DC Current from the AquaPulser. The Distribution Box isolates the vehicles ignition system from the AquaPulser.

The AquaPulser system can NOT be used with Ignition Systems that have individual coils connected to each spark plug. (but Nology Hotwires can [they are below] )

  • You will need to replace your Resistor type spark plugs with Non-Resistor plugs.
  • You can not use PulStar spark plugs with the AquaPulser system.
  • You also need to use near zero resistant spark plug wires between the AquaPulser system and the spark plugs.


Coming Soon - from AquaPulser:



 AquaPulser web-site (AquaPulser is now being sold by Blue Phoenix).

  Blue Phoenix Ignition web-site

AquaPulser says:

This is an experimental module for researchers to experiment with all fuels including water mist. It may be possible to run a motor on water mist if the only factor is the energy of the plasma discharge. We can build much higher energy plasma modules with 1000 volt or higher capacitors, however a new spark plug has to be designed to handle the increased plasma energy.
The goal for plug designers should be to come up with a design that ejects the plasma into the combustion chamber minimizing plug wear and increase efficiency. (Cage designs are not recommended for plasma ignition)

We also suggest experimentation with fuels that blend with water. ethanol + water mix for example.



Using Plasma Arc to ignite our fuel is the easiest solution to improving fuel consumption. It opens the door for alternate fuels. Non-petroleum fuels such as Alcohol mixed with water may lead us to our next goal - which is to run our motors on water alone. This is very do-able. I believe all we need is the Firestorm Spark Plug and the AquaPulser. Robert Krupa, it is time for you to put up or shut up. We are tired of your excuses. Make your plugs; one at a time if you have to - but make them available to us.


PulStar Pulse Spark Plug  (capacitive discharge)




Pulstar plug vs spark plug

It’s called a pulse plug – and here’s why its technology should be in your engine.

Until now, every gallon of gas you bought was ignited by a simple spark plug- an outdated technology that has barely changed in 100 years.  But now you can change to a new eco-friendly pulse plug that uses an advanced technology to make every drop of gas burn better and cleaner.

Here’s how it works:  Electrical energy from the engine’s ignition coil is stored in the built-in capacitor inside the plug.  At the exact moment needed, that energy is released in an amazingly powerful and quick (two nanosecond) high-energy pulse equal to 5,000,000 watts of power.

The result:  The improved combustion efficiency burns fuel sooner and more effectively, which equals improved mpg, less CO2 based emissions, and better overall drivability.  Even the green get greener!  For example, in this EPA US06 fuel consumption lab test, even the icon of fuel economy and eco-friendliness- the Toyota Prius- saw notable improvements in mpg.

This new technology is based on plasma research supported by the world famous Sandia National Laboratories

Pulse plugs may look similar to spark plugs on the outside, but inside the technological advances of PulStar are evident. Pulse plugs feature a unique capacitor-based circuit that captures energy normally wasted by spark plugs and generates a spark with 10,000 times greater energy than any spark plug; the best is only 500 watts. Pulstar does this without having to change your Ignition Wires and Coil Packs.

                                satisfaction guaranteed

  • Greater Engine Torque

  • Greater Horsepower

  • Quicker Throttle Response

  • Better Fuel Economy

  • Lower Emissions

  • Smoother Operation

  • Improved Towing Capacity


The following Feedback is mine, and my families _ daddyo44907:

  1. I installed the PulStar spark plugs on my daughters Toyota Yaris. It has a 1.5 liter 4 cylinder engine. My son-in-law and I took it for a test drive. Right out of the gate, the car ran smoother and had more noticeable power. I had him stomp down of the peddle as we approached the top of steep hill. Wow, the torque pushed us back into the seats and the front end raised up. With Pulstar, the power curve starts sooner, reaches a higher peek, and lasts longer. It makes the Yaris fun to drive. My son-in-law tells me the Yaris is getting better fuel mileage, but he does not know how much. He is convinced that the PulStar spark plugs were well worth the money.

  2. July 24, 2010, I put a set of PulStar spark plugs in my Ford Taurus Station Wagon. It is a 2001 with a 3 Liter 6 cylinder, with 2 valves per cylinder. Instantly, the motor ran smoother and quieter. I do not have to press the gas peddle as far as I used too. It shifts gears sooner. There is more power on the low end and high end; it comes on sooner and lasts longer. I took it out on the express way and tromped it; Wow; Holy Moley; it felt like I had a V8. I was startled by the power gain. I mean it really took off. Next, I checked the fuel mileage to see if it improved. I had been getting 16 mpg in town and 24 highway. Now I get 18 to 21 in town and 27.5 highway, on E10 ethanol (90% gasoline),

  3. I had one person complain that his V8 tuck ran only on 4 cylinders after installing the PulStar spark plugs. He asked if I had any suggestions. I was only able to tell him to contact PulStar support; they guarantee the plugs or your money back. The manufacturer recommends using caution while installing the plugs. They caution against dropping the plugs; that can damage the internal components. They also recommend adjusting the "gap" to your vehicles requirements (that is a timing issue). They also stated that the gap can be 0.040 on most vehicles that require higher gaps.

  4. My No. 1 son-in-law is a chief mechanic for a Security company. He put the PulStar's in several trucks and did not tell the drivers. They all came back to him and asked "What did you do to my truck? It runs great now. Wow". He is sending me feedback, along with mpg improvements that were around 2.5 to 4 mpg city. Not bad at all. It is feedback like this that drives me to telling you about Pulstar Pulse Plugs.

  5. Some vehicle computers take a while to adjust to the PulStar Pulse plugs; as noted in the Dyno testing of the Harley Davidson motorcycle video.

  6. If you have Feedback on these PulStar plugs, please let me know. I will post the information. If we can get enough people to purchase this product, we can get the price down. Originally they cost $50 each; now they are $10 to $14 - depending on the type of metal electrode you choose. Keep this company in business. Do not let big oil buy this product out.

  • Feedback on Pulstar spark plugs. Had it installed on my 2005 Honda CRV. All I can say is wow! More than noticeable increase in power at low end. Will report on gas mileage. Thanks for all the info.


PulStar website 

  PulStar News : Honeywell to manufacture PulStar in their Autolite Spark Plug Plant

  PulStar News:  EMAX Enterprises to manufacture and distribute PulStar in China

  Pulstar Pulse Plugs for Harley

You can Buy Pulstar at the following US Dealers:

Advance Auto Parts can order these sparkplugs. They can get them overnight in most cases. They do not charge for shipping.

US Auto Parts  Sparkplugs.com  JCWhitney     
 Home  O'Reilly Auto Parts   Spark Plugs and Spak Plug Wires - SparkPlugAuto.com  Pulstar Pulse Plugs  Auto Parts Warehouse 

  • You can not use PulStar plugs if you already have CDI ignition or CDI plug wires.
  • You can not use AquaPulser with these spark plugs (CDI).
  • You can not use Nology Hotwires with these spark plugs (CDI).

Pulstar® pulse plugs are available on the internet from:


More details:

Pulse plugs incorporate a pulse circuit, which stores incoming electrical energy from the ignition system and releases the stored energy in a powerful pulse of power. Instead of 50 watts of peak power typical of all spark plugs, pulse plugs deliver up to 1 million watts of peak power. So where does the pulse plug get its incredible power?

When the ignition signal is sent to a traditional spark plug, it begins to ionize the spark gap. This means that the voltage builds in the gap until a spark can be formed. During this ionization phase, which lasts about 5 millionths of a second, the incoming voltage (which has nowhere to go) heats up ignition components including the spark plug. This is wasted energy. When the ignition voltage overcomes the resistance in the spark gap, the spark is created with an initial discharge of approximately 50 watts. Once created, the spark resides between the electrodes at very low power for over a period of 30 millionths of a second.

What is different about a pulse plug is that instead of heating ignition parts during the ionization phase, this energy is stored in the integral circuit inside the pulse plug. When the ignition power overcomes the resistance in the spark gap, the pulse circuit discharges all of its accumulated power - 1 million watts - in 2 billionths of a second!

Tests at an independent laboratory demonstrated how PulStar™ pulse plugs burn fuel faster and more efficiently than spark plugs. In a high-speed video on the companies website, which was shot at 68,000 frames per second, you can actually see the ignition plume of PulStar™ growing at more than twice the speed of the spark plug. PulStar™ generates a much larger spark than spark plugs, which reduces overall burn time and burns the fuel more completely. This faster fuel burn increases cylinder pressure by as much as 10% allowing the engine to generate the same power with less fuel resulting in better fuel economy.

CAUTION: PulStar™ model recommendations are for stock, unmodified engines. If you have added an aftermarket turbocharger, supercharger, nitrous or any other product that increases displacement or compression to your engine you will require a colder heat range pulse plug in order to avoid possible damage to your engine.







Note:  This plug is available on the market, the Firestorm is not!
Bill Cozzolino's - Plasma Arc Generator   (www.skyhero.com)


Plasma Arc Circuit Diagram

Plasma Arc Generator - Video Update





Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS)

General News Parts Mine’s a corona: Federal-Mogul claims 10 per cent efficiency gains from its new Advanced Corona Ignition System in testing.


Federal-Mogul claims up to 10% efficiency gains from its new Advanced Corona Ignition System - in testing.

A NEW attempt to improve on the traditional spark-ignition method for petrol engines has been revealed in the shape of a high-intensity plasma burst – otherwise known as a corona – which utilises electrical energy in a more controlled way than is possible with a spark.

Michigan-based international automotive supplier Federal-Mogul is behind the technology, which it says has brought fuel efficiency gains of up to 10 per cent in testing compared with conventional spark plugs.

The Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS) – which was unveiled at the recent Frankfurt motor show – is claimed to produce a faster, larger ignition source that is spread throughout the combustion chamber, so a more thorough burn of the air-fuel mixture is possible, allowing engines to run leaner, with higher compression ratios and increased amounts of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).

In addition, ignition timing can be more accurately managed to make the most of precise direct-injection fuel systems, while enabling a quicker burn that ensures more of the energy contained in fuel is converted to mechanical motion.

General NewsParts center image

 Laser Spark Plug

Federal-Mogul president and CEO Jose Maria Alapont said the company’s testing – and that of its customers – has demonstrated fuel economy and emissions improvements “at levels unachievable with spark ignition”.

The company has “optimised” ACIS to be easily implemented in high-volume applications for “both current and future powertrain architectures” by designing it to fit in the space occupied by a conventional ignition setup, enabling engine manufacturers to build the technology into their products “with no adverse impact on engine design or assembly”.

Another claimed advantage over conventional spark plugs is that ACIS does not suffer from electrode erosion, resulting in greater reliability and potentially longer service intervals.

In addition, Federal-Mogul also claims the materials used in ACIS are “already proven in automotive applications to ensure durability throughout the designed service life”.

Federal-Mogul powertrain energy director for ACIS Kristapher Mixell described the technology as game-changing and one that presents possibilities for further improving existing internal combustion technology.

“We have already recorded fuel consumption improvements of up to 10 per cent on a 1.6-litre turbocharged gasoline direct-injection engine, and there is potential for further improvements,” he said.

“The technology enables powertrain engineers to more efficiently develop combustion strategies, such as stratified charge, lean burn and high levels of EGR, to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.”

Engineers are beginning to see the humble spark plug –which has been around since 1860 and was first made commercially viable by Robert Bosch in 1898 – as one of the weakest links in the race to squeeze more efficiency out of the petrol engine.

ACIS is not the only spark plug alternative in development. A Japan-based team of researchers – as well as separate attempts by Colorado State University in the US and Liverpool University in the UK – have been investigating the use of lasers for initiating internal combustion.

The Colorado team patented a special type of optical fibre that could withstand the high levels of energy required to create a spark in an internal combustion engine, but the British team said it struggled to deliver a strong enough laser beam into the combustion chamber without directly focussing the beam – generated by a large laser unit that would not fit under a car bonnet – through a lens placed in a hollowed-out conventional spark plug.

However, the team in Japan – backed by the Japan Science and Technical Agency with support from Toyota-owned component manufacturer Denso – overcame the challenges by using ceramics to make a powerful composite laser just 9mm wide by 11mm long that generated two beams able to simultaneously start combustion in separate areas of the combustion chamber.

Another school of thought being pursued by General Motors is to use compression ignition for petrol engines – like a diesel engine, using the heat generated by compression to ignite the fuel/air mixture.

Mr Alapont said Federal-Mogul will continue developing spark plug technology alongside ACIS, given there are expected to be more than 1.2 billion cars on the road worldwide by 2015 – ensuring a continued high level of demand for conventional spark ignition systems.

General News Parts Mine’s a corona: Federal-Mogul claims 10 per cent efficiency gains from its new Advanced Corona Ignition System in testing.  Federalmogul.com


A bird in the hand is worth 2 in the bush!


Brisk Racing - Model LGS

Brisk Racing developed this plug for Lamborghini. It produces a plasma like spark. The plug requires a very hot coil and very low resistant plug wires. I installed the plugs and noticed smoother running, but did not get any power gains or MPG gains. I installed the following set of ignition wires - and man - what a power increase. Purchased from the website below:

Available at Brisk Racing Website


Granatelli's MPG/Plus Performance Ignition Wire Set

An easy way to increase your fuel mileage…not a bad idea these days! Also increases horsepower and torque for better engine performance and a more responsive ride. The MPG/Plus Performance Ignition Set features near zero-ohm resistance, solid stainless steel core wires, plus an RFI/EFI Hybrid Protection Ring that prevents stereo noise and allows full coil power to reach the spark plug. The result is full power, a hotter spark, more complete combustion, better fuel efficiency, more power and better overall performance…without replacing the coil! Premium technology throughout: stainless steel inner core for high tensile strength, silver plated copper outer core for high conductivity, EPDM insulation, fiberglass braiding for strength, 500° silicone jacket and boots and heavy-duty stainless steel snap-lock terminals at the spark plug! Meets or exceeds OEM specifications. Limited lifetime warranty.

Available from Jcwhitney.com 
Available from Granatelli

  • You can use AquaPulser with these wires.
  • You can use PulStar spark plugs with these wires

NOLOGY HotWires (Capacitive Discharge)

Nology HotWires are the most technologically advanced ignition wires available. HotWires create the most powerful spark possible. HotWires are engineered with a special built-in capacitor, exclusive only to HotWires. This revolutionary design allows energy from the ignition coil to accumulate in the capacitor until the voltage at the spark plug electrodes reaches the ionization point. At that split second point the entire power of the stored spark is discharged at once, creating a spark 300 times more powerful. The result is faster, more complete combustion, and most importantly,

Nology's website

You need to use Non-Resistor spark plugs in order to achieve a Plasma Spark with these wires.

  • You can not use PulStar spark plugs with these wires.
  • You can not use AquaPulser with these wires.














I also added this 45,000 volt coil
  • Provide maximum ignition power
  • Eliminate misfires, reduce plug fouling

Available from: nology.com

Nology's new line of high performance ignition coils features the most impressive performance data. The application of all new technology makes these coils second to none. ProFire ignition coils are on the cutting edge of technology. In order to supply the energy needed for trouble free high performance and high rpm operation, they were especially designed to have the quickest rise time with substantial energy reserves. The available spark voltage is in excess of 45,000 volts over the entire rpm range, and spark energy is equally impressive. Despite their size, the energy storage capability and power reserves of ProFire are extra high. ProFire will deliver just the kind of spark you need for maximum performance. When the best is just good enough, use ProFire.

  • Can be used with AquaPulser
  • Can be used with Nology Hotwires
  • Can be used with PulStar spark plugs

Web Links


Water - Plasma Spark Plugs (59 page document)

Motorcycle Engine running on Plasma spark - using water as fuel
Plasma Spark
Page Last Edited - 04/03/2022

    Copyright © 2003   All rights reserved.   Revised: 04/03/22.                                             Web Author, David Biggs
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